Nigerian culture is as multi-ethnic as the people in Nigeria. This, probably, stems from the fact that the country is made up of over 400 linguistic groups, three principal religions, a multiple of socio-political opinions and organisations and varying weather and climatic conditions between the North and the South.
Nigeria boasts of rich customs and traditions, cultures and festivals that would appeal to the tastes of the average tourist. From the Northern States of the country through western Nigeria, down to the Eastern part, the customs, cultures and traditions of the people are all unique.
In the Northern part of the country, they are mainly Hausa/Fulani, Nupe, Kanuri, Igala and Tiv, and are governed by the Muslim religious traditions. Most of the festivals held in these areas include, the Durbar in Katsina and Kaduna States, the Argungu Fishing Festival in Kebbi State which has so far gained international recognition.
Also the north, especially Sokoto, Kebbi, Jigawa, Kano, Yobe, Borno, Zamfara, Bauchi, Gombe Katsina and Kaduna are semi-desert and so, experience little rain within the year. The weather is generally hot during the day and cold during the night through most of the year. The common dress in these States is the Babanriga, a large, flowing top over large trousers. The major means of transport in this semi desert are the camel, the donkey and the horse. The horse, most of the times, is bred for the purpose of traditional and religious festivals such as the Durbar, when they are dressed in very flamboyant colours and attires as active participants. In these Northern States, education, the judicial system and other institutions are influenced by the Muslim religion. Education begins with learning Arabic and reading the Koran. Western education has gained much ground with the establishment of the Ahmadu Bello university, Zaria, Kaduna State in 1962, and it is said to be the largest university in Africa. Other universities in the North include University of Maiduguri (Bomo), Uthman Dan Fodiyo University (Sokoto), Bayero University of Science and Technology, Bauchi. The commonest language in use in the Northern States is Hausa.
In what is described as the Middle Belt of Nigeria are the States of Niger, Kogi, Benue, Adamawa, Taraba and Plateau. Plateau State and its capital of Jos remains the tourist capital of the whole of Northern Nigeria. The State boasts of a temperate climate, with a population that boasts of the largest concentration of foreigners among the States of the North. Add to this list the quiet environment of the University of Jos, the Highbrow National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, NIPSS, Kuru and the National Museum that depicts the cultures and traditions of several Nigerian nationalities.
The Western States of Lagos, Oyo, Ekiti, Osun, Ondo and Edo, constitute the most developed axis in the country. The people, who are united almost by a single language, Yoruba, also constitute the most articulate of the Nigerian populace. In the area of religion, less than 20 per cent are moslems. About 60 percent are Christians while the other 20 per cent are traditional worshippers of other gods such as Osun and Ogun. Traditional worship is very popular in the Western States so that some have been turned into festivals in Osogbo, Osun State.
The West is highly educated and industrialised. Nigeria’s Premier University, the University of lbadan, Oyo State was established in 1948, also the Universities of Lagos and Benin (Edo State), the