Bijagos na Guinea-Bissau: Kabilar nahiyar Afirka inda mata ke mulki kuma suke zabar mazajensu

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A cikin kabilar Bijagos na Guinea, lokacin da mace ta zama uwa, ana ba ta mafi girman daraja kuma ta sami babban bambanci.  Gabatar da mace a cikin kabilar Bijagos yana da matukar muhimmanci, idan aka yi la’akari da cewa za ta girma ta zama babbar jigo a cikin zamantakewar iyali da na gari.
A cikin Tekun Atlantika kusa da gabar tekun Afirka, tsibiran Bijagos sun ƙunshi tsibiran ƙa’ida guda ashirin da wasu ‘yan kaɗan kaɗan.  Bugu da ƙari, ba tare da la’akari da tsayin daka na tasiri daga mulkin mallaka na Portugal ba, matan tsibirin suna da fa’ida a taimakon gwamnati na abokantaka, tattalin arziki, da doka.
Kafin zamanin Sarauniya Pampa Kanyimpa wanda ya tabbatar da tsibirin Bijagos a kan nasarar Portuguese, majagaba na Turai sun kwatanta jama’a na Bijago ko Bissagos “a matsayin ƙungiyar ruwa, masu zalunci da masu yaki, sun nutse a cikin musayar bayi da fashi,” rahoton CBD-  Gidauniyar Habitat ta ce.
Sun murkushe ƴan Portugal waɗanda ke buƙatar ɗaukar iko a kan yankunansu a cikin 1530s har zuwa ƙarshen 1900s lokacin da aka yi musu mulkin mallaka.  Sarkin Kanyimpa, wanda ya fi shahara a tsibiran Bijagos, daga baya ya kulla yarjejeniyar rashin cin zarafi da shi.
A yau, tsibirai yana mamaye da kusan mutane 33,000 da ke zaune a cikin ƙayatacciyar ƙasa, cikakke, da wadataccen mazaunin yau da kullun tare da tasiri a cikin mallakar mata.Ya kunshi kananan garuruwan da gidaje suka yi yawa da laka da bambaro, mata su ne masu wadannan gidajen, har ma sun gina su.  Tsibiri bisa la’akari da tattalin arzikin albarkatun ƙasa, mazauna sun mallaki gidaje kuma suna haɓaka kayan lambu, shinkafa, da cashews, kuma mata suna da ‘yancin kai na kuɗi, daidaita aikin kuma abin mamaki suna aiki fiye da maza.
 Duk da cewa maza suna kama kifaye, suna tattara ruwan ‘ya’yan itace da kayan bishiyan kwakwa, suna tsaftacewa da gyara filayen don shuka shinkafa, a wasu lokuta ana ɗaukar su a matsayin samari waɗanda aka kuɓutar  daga wajibai masu yawa kuma suna ba da izini don ƙarin jin daɗi da lokacin farin ciki.  , “in ji wata labarin a mmstudies.com.Galibi, ‘yan matan Bijago suna da alhakin ayyukan gida;  suna noman kananan lambuna da noman shinkafa, suna sarrafa man ja, su yanka bambaro su rufe gidaje yayin da suke koyar da ‘ya’yansu  mu’amala.
Baya ga sha’anin tattalin arziki da walwalar jama’a, mata kuma suna zabar mazajen aurensu su kuma yanke lokacin da suke buƙatar rabuwa.‘Yan matan suna zabar mazajen da zasu aure ta hanyar ajiye babban farantin abinci a wurin da suka fi so, idan saurayin ya yarda da ita, sai ya ci abincin.  tare da budurwar a cikin bututun da za ta reno, sannan ma’auratan sun kama… har sai ta fitar da mahimman tasirinta a ƙofar gaba, wanda ke nuna ba ta son zama tare da shi kuma, “CBD-Habitat  Rahoton gidauniya ya ce.
A lokacin ayyuka, mata suna da alhakin komai, daga dafa abinci, kunna kiɗa, motsi zuwa ba da abubuwan sha ga maza.  Samun addini mai raɗaɗi da kuma samun bangaskiya ga sake haifuwa, mafi yawan ayyukansu suna biye da bukukuwa masu yawa da inganci na allahntaka, kuma mata suna da alhakin dangantaka da duniyar ruhi kamar yadda jama’a ke jagorantar firistoci waɗanda ke binciken ƙabilu na uwa. Bangaren uwa sun kasance iyalai mafi ban mamaki a cikin ’yan Bijago.  Daga baya, oroñô ko shugaban wani gari a tsibirin kuma ana kallon waɗannan ƙungiyoyin uwaye a cikin motsi wanda rukunin tsofaffi ke sarrafawa. Duk da dogaro da kadarori na yau da kullun na tsibiran da suka hada da itatuwan bishiyan kwakwa,  mangrove, shoals da yankunan teku, kai tsaye ’yan Bijago sun kara kiyaye muhallin jama’a, lamarin da ya sanya yankinsu ya ayyana matsayin UNESCO Biosphere Reserve a shekarar 1996.
UMMU KHULTHUM ABDULKADIR.